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经济学人:短期借贷 原则与利率 (02)

But lenders can get around these laws by registering as “credit service organisations”, relocating to other states, or even working with Native American tribes to claim sovereign immunity.

但贷款人可以通过注册为“信用服务组织”,迁移到其他州,甚至与美洲土著部落一起申请主权豁免权来避开这些法律。

At the federal level, Congress passed the Military Lending Act in 2006, capping loan rates to service members at 36%.

2006年,在联邦一级的国会上通过了“军事贷款法”,限制对军人的贷款利率上限为 36%。

More recently, the Department of Justice launched “Operation Choke Point”, an effort to press banks into severing ties with businesses at risk of money-laundering, payday lenders among them.

最近,司法部发起了“瓶颈行动”,旨在强迫银行与有洗钱风险的公司断绝关系,薪资贷款(公司)就包括其中。

But the real crackdown on payday lending could come if the Consumer Finance Protection Bureau (CFPB) , a watchdog, implements new regulations on high-interest loans.

但是,如果监管机构——消费者金融保护局(CFPB)在高利息贷款上实施新规定,对发薪日贷款真正的打击可能会到来。

The rules include underwriting standards and other restrictions designed to keep borrowers out of debt; the CFPB estimates that they could reduce payday-loan volumes by more than 80%.

这些规则包括承保标准和其他旨在保证借款人还清债务的限制;CFPB估计可以将发薪日贷款额度减少80%以上

The threat of regulation may already have had an effect.

监管的威胁可能已经产生了影响。

The Centre for Financial Services Innovation, a non-profit group, reckons that payday-loan volumes have fallen by 18% since 2014; revenues have dropped by 30%.

非营利组织金融服务创新中心认为,自2014年以来,工资日贷款量下降了18%收入利润下降了30%。

During the first nine months of 2016, lenders shut more than 500 stores and total employment in the industry fell by 3,600, or 3.5%.

在2016年前九个月,关闭了500多家贷款点,该行业的就业总额下降了3600个,即下降了3.5%。

To avoid the new rules, lenders are shifting away from lump-sum payday loans toward instalment loans, which give borrowers more time to get back on their feet.

为了避免这个新的法规,贷款人正从一次总付发放日贷款转向分期贷款,这种类型的贷款给借款人更多的时间还清他们的贷款。

It would be premature to celebrate the demise of payday lenders.

庆祝发薪日贷款的消亡还为时过早。

The Trump administration is likely to block the CFPB's new regulations.

特朗普政府很可能阻碍消费者金融保护局的新规定。

And even if the rules are pushed through, consumers may not be better off.

甚至如果规则通过,消费者们并不会过得更好。

Academic research on payday-lending regulation is mixed, with some studies showing benefits, others showing costs, and still others finding no consumer-welfare effects at all.

关于发薪日贷款管理的学术研究观点是复杂的,一些研究显示其有益,有些则显示损害,还有一些研究没有发现对消费者福利的影响。

A forthcoming paper by two economists at West Point concludes that the Military Lending Act yielded “no significant benefits to service members”.

西点军校的两位经济学家即将出版的论文得出结论,“军事借贷法”对军人来说没有重大好处。

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